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又到一年毕业季长租公寓受青睐

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 古镇产业升级紧扣LED 灯光文化节成新动力 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

环保涂料谋发展:三大“阵痛”问题需解决

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

vigor(n 精力;活力)
exposed
v. 强调,着重
多达10000份影片(一个虚构CIA刺杀北韩领袖金正恩的喜剧片)和500000份宣传单将会在3月26号左右通过气球投放。
The central government is planning to establish a bond market connect between the mainland and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on a trial basis this year, allowing for the first time overseas capital to access mainland bond markets from overseas. Hong Kong will be the first to benefit from such an arrangement
n. 回想,记忆,纪念品
10. A bad marriage can lead to an early death

你可以在任何时候进行冥想,但你可以在学习之前的15分钟,上课前的15分钟,考试前的15分钟进行冥想,你就会自己身为学生的良好表现而感到惊讶了。
现在的假手除了具备手的外形外,几乎没有其他功能。当然,这些假手能够拿东西和保持身体平衡,但是它们缺乏人手最重要的功能之一——触感。装了假手的人在碰触到一样物品时,如果不用眼睛看,是没法判断东西的。
克里斯托弗诺兰的这部二战题材电影可能就是最佳影片的领跑者。
Ahead of the release, economists at ANZ said they expected inflation to pick up in January owing to rising food prices, and the low commodity prices would weigh on the CPI.
Jacobs vowed at the meeting to improve management and cooperation with the association to enhance the credibility of the science. He stressed the publisher was not targeting China, as it had also retracted papers by experts from other countries, the statement said.

Footnotes

  • 实体店与电商是友非敌 门企应二者结合
  • 然而,在毕业3年后,担任部门负责人或以上级别职位的女性(59%)显著少于男性(68%)。

Tsinghua University holds the No. 1 spot in both computer science and engineering. The Chinese institution overtook MIT for the top computer science rank this year.
Télécom Business School in France and Prague’s University of Economics have the most gender-balanced faculty, with exactly 50 per cent women, while Switzerland’s University of Zurich is the least balanced, with only 9 per cent. Switzerland’s IMD has the most international faculty, with 94 per cent of them from overseas, while faculty at Politecnico di Milano School of Management are all Italian.
Traditionally Chinese universities scored less well in international ranking tables compared to US and European incumbents in levels of teaching and research.
Dreamworks Animation
Rank: 3
根据最新相关报告表示,亚马逊凭借在数据中心、设备、电子方法和系统等方面的创新而上榜。

江苏楼市调控满月:成交趋于理性 投资增速回落

References

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